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Piqué de Marseille " OR "Marseilles."

The quilted weave, as applied to cotton fabrics, is known among weavers as the "Marseilles" weave. It comes from the white needlework for which Marseille and the Provence in southern France are known.It is a double cloth, the face being a moder­ately close, plain weave. The back is a very open, plain weave. Between the back and face a soft twisted heavy filling, called "stuffing," is woven. The two cloths are stitched together at frequent intervals in weaving, the stitches being arranged so as to suffi­ciently bind the two cloths together, and at the same time form an orna­mental design or pattern. The "stuf­fing" between the cloths gives the fab­ric the embossed effect.

Pique de Marseille


being plain woven is drawn into hed-dles as for sheeting. The back is also a plain weave, but the back warp Is also the quilting warp, and has to be mounted in a "jacquard" harness, un­less the pattern is small enough to be produced on a "dobby." Two face threads and one back (or quilting) thread are drawn into each dent of reed



calls for a loom with two shuttle boxes at each end of lathe. Large patterns require a "jacquard" attachment, while the small designs may be made on a dobby head; also two warp beams are necessary. In operation the loom throws in one back, two face and one stuffing pick in regular order. To make the embossed effect show up well the back warp is woven with con­siderably more tension than the face.



for the construction of this fabric, about 11 times the square root of the average hank number on face and back may be used. The "stuffing" should be four times as heavy as the average number used for face and back.
The picks are thrown in two face and two stuffing regularly.
the average number of the face yarn is given. The fabric looks better and wears better, if warp and filling on .face are alixe, but it helps the weav­ing out wonderfully to have a consid­erable difference between the two, the warp being from 10 to 20 per cent heavier man the rilling.
It is beyond the scope of an element­ary article like this to attempt any description of the means used to pro­duce the ornate designs of the fabric. The artist who originates textile de­signs must draw each design to fit the i'abric he is dealing with. Each fabric Jias its special characteristics as to de­sign, and each also has its limitations. The characteristics and limits of the iabric under consideration may be here stated.
Color effects are hardly admis­sible. The fabric is essentially a white one. The quilting warp is sometimes •colored, so as to show a pattern com­posed of colored lines and dots on a white ground. The design is not there­by altered, for the pattern woven with colored stitching may also be woven entirely white.
The fabric admits only of a de­sign of "dots" arranged to produce large designs.
In the vestings and fabrics with small patterns, the quilting warp threads, when not raised to make a stitch, are floated. The dots then should be arranged so as to avoid very long floats.
4. On counterpanes the design has to be very large, and has to be pro­duced on a "jacquard" machine of com­paratively small capacity. This calls for a design that can be enlarged in the tie-up of the harness and to this end certain parts of the design are ar­ranged so as to admit of several repe' titions.

is now generally applied to this fabric when woven in small patterns within the capacity of the "dobby." This name particularly applies when the goods are to be used for ladles' and children's dresses, men's shirt fronts, etc. However, the fabric that is called "pique" when used for dresses or shirt fronts, would be a "Marseilles" if made up into a man's vest. The name "pique" is probably from the French "piquer," to quilt or prick with a needle. Possibly the name "Mar­seilles" is also a corruption of the French "matelas," a quilt or mattress.
A CORDED "MARSEILLES. or "pique" is essentially the same fabric as the figured article, but is woven rather differently. The warp is drawn into a three-shed harness like a common three-shed twill. To produce the corded effect the harnesses are operated by a doboy. Two warps are used as in the preceding cases, one warp having twice as many threads as the other; the quilting warp is drawn into the back harness, the face warp in the middle and front.


Not easy to find a real antique one , even in Provence, as there are so many modern copies. The oldest one were made with two pieces of cotton that were stuffed and stitched by hand to design intricate patterns. Real antique pieces are very expensive (usd 1500-20000 ).
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