TEXTILE DICTIONARY AND TERMS RELATING TO TEXTILE
Cable net. See net.
Finish on cotton and linen goods which gives smooth surface, not permanent. Cloth passed between cylinders with heat and pressure.
Name derived from Calicut, India, where cloth was first printed with wood blocks by hand. Originally a fine printed cotton fabric, which has become an inferior material; narrow, coarse, made from low grade cotton and highly sized. There are still some good calicoes, but they are more in the nature of chintzes, i.e., with good design and colorings and used for drapery purposes. Percale has almost replaced calico. Calico may be printed directly, or may have the figure discharged chemically from a dark background. Some calicoes are not printed as Turkey red and other plain colors. It does not tear straight across the cloth because of rapid feeding into the calender machine. Uses: aprons, dresses.
Name from Cambrai, France, where linen cambric first made. I. White cotton fabric, closely woven, fine, soft or with little sizing, calendered with a gloss on the right side. Uses: underwear, aprons,, shirts. Weave—plain. Width, 36".. 2. Lining cambric, thin, narrow, stiff, glazed, white or piece-dyed. Does not launder. Similar to paper cambric. White and plain colors. Uses: linings, pattern modelling, scrap books, fancy dress costumes. Weave— plain. Width, 25", 27". 3. Linen, fine smooth, white. Uses: collars, cuffs, shirt bosoms, church embroidery, lunch cloths, napkins, doilies.
Camel's hair or Camel-hair
1. Hair-like wool from camel, light brown in color. Uses: paint brushes, oriental rugs, coatings.
2. Coating made in natural camel's hair color. Value depends upon quality of fibres. Good grade very soft and light in weight. Weave—usually twill.
Crepy wool fabric or silk goods resembling a heavy grade of crepe de chine.
General term covering cotton and silk mixtures known only by trade names as Seco, Fairy, etc.
So named because first made in Canton, China. Heavy cotton material with twilled surface on one side and long soft nap on the other. Valuable for its warmth and absorbing quality. Bleached or unbleached or piece-dyed in plain colors. Uses: sleeping garments, inter-linings, household purposes, diapers. Weave—twill. Width, 27", 36".
Commonly called grass cloth, Chinese grass cloth or grass linen. Fine, translucent fabric which looks like linen. Made of ramie fibre (china grass). It wrinkles like linen, but has a distinctive, clear, oiled appearance due to lustre of ramie fibres when not twisted. Much worn in China in the stiff (or natural gum) unbleached state. Mostly hand woven. Cool and durable. Bleached or dyed blue. Sold in Oriental shops. Uses: lunch cloths, doilies, blouses.
Heavy, firm, even weave in linen or cotton. 1. Ada canvas or Java canvas. Coarse, stiff, rather open fabric of the canvas type. Originally made of linen, now usually of cotton. Color, ecru or tan. Uses: art needlework, particularly gros point. Weave—fancy (modification of basket). Width, 40", 44". 2. Awning stripe. Duck woven in colored stripes. Uses: awnings, hammocks, couch covers. Weave—plain. Width, 29", 36". See Duck. 3. Cross-stitch canvas or Penelope canvas. Stiff open fabric somewhat resembling tarlatan only heavier and stiffer. Some grades have stripes or bars of blue yarn at intervals for marking off spaces. Different sizes of mesh. Use: for working cross-stitch patterns.
Cape net. See Rice Net.
Process of separating fibres preliminary to spinning. Cartridge cloth. Plain woven, spun silk fabric for cartridge bags. Made according to U. S. government specifications
Broad term which covers many drapery
fabrics usually light, plain, neutral colors as cream, ecru.
Canvas, Cross Stitch or Penelope
oyster, gray and tan. A variety of weaves are employed as plain, twill, satin striped, small figure. In silk, silk and cotton, mercerized cotton or rayon. Uses: curtains, particularly for French windows, screens. Weave—plain or fancy. Width, 36", 45 ', 48", 50". 54".
1. Light weight dress fabric originally made from any fine wool of the Cashmere goat, but now from any fine wool. Similar to henrietta, but not so closely woven or highly finished. Piece-dyed. Launders. Uses: dresses, negligees, infant's wear. Weave—twill, filling on
the face. Width, 42". 2. Hosiery "made entirely of high grade pure wool". Ruling of Federal Trade Commission. Term has been misused.
Cloth for men's suits, made of hard spun yarns finished without a nap. Not typical worsted. Weave— plain, twill or fancy. Width, 54".
Celanese.* Trade name for a kind of rayon made by the acetate process.
Chain. Another name for warp.
An embroidery stitch worked by putting the needle in from the back, pulling it through and holding the thread down with the left thumb. The needle is then inserted at the point whence it came out, a small portion of the ground material taken up on it and the thrfad drawn through, the point of the needle being kept above the held down thread. Thus is formed the first link of the chain. The stitch is of great antiquity and was extensively introduced in Anglo-Saxon ecclesiastic embroidery. It fell into disuse during the greater part of the seventeenth century at the end of which, however, it re-appeared. Chain-stitch has always been conspicuous in the needlework of Oriental countries.
Challie or Challis
(pr. shal-ee). Originally a silk and worsted fabric made in Norwich, England. 1. Light weight dress fabric of wool or cotton and wool. Similar to old-fashioned muslin de laine. Soft, smooth yarns. Always printed (direct or discharge). Wears and launders well. Sec Kobe Flannel. Uses: negligees and dresses. Weave—-plain. Width, 27", 30". 2. Light weight, soft cotton printed material similar to voile but not so fine or smooth. Wears and launders well. Uses: comforters, linings, draperies; better grades for kimonos and dresses. Weave—-plain. Width, 27", 36".
(pr. sham-bray). A type of gingham, plain in color, often having dyed warp and white filling. Chambray gingham wears well and is easily laundered. Weave—-plain. Width, 27", 28", 32", 36". Manchester chambray, the old type, was narrow, thin and stiff. Weave—plain. Widtb.25". Heavy English chambrays are used for work shirts and are sold by weight, as for example, 3.8o equals three and eight-tenths yards to the pound. Weave—plain. Width, 28".
Chamoisette.* See Fabric gloves.
Chamoisuede.* See Fabric gloves.
Lace made in Chantilly France.
(Fr. pr. Shar-don-nay). Nitrocellulose process for making rayon named for Count de Chardonnet.
* Fine worsted dress fabric with a steep twill which resembles satin weave.
(pr. shar-muz). 1. Light weight, rich looking satin weave with a dull back. May be described as a very soft satin with a subdued lustre, due to the spun silk filling; adapted to draping. Piece dyed. Uses: gowns, party wraps. Weave—satin. Charmeuse is a highly mercerized cotton fabric used for bloomers, slips, linings. Lingetle* and Buty Chine* are trade names.
Originally used for wrapping cheese. Thin, loosely woven cotton material made from coarse yarns. It is unfinished, feels soft, has fuzzy surface. Bleached, unbleached or dyed. Better grades launder but shrink. All grades called gauze by the manufacturer.
yarn Showing process of making chenille
called bunting. Uses: poorer quality called hospital gauze for dressings. Better grades—curtains, pageant costumes, pattern modelling and many other purposes. Weave—plain. Width, 25", 36". Chenille (pr. shen-eel). French for caterpillar. 1. Name for a yarn having a pile protruding all around at right angles. Used for filling in cloth, also for fringe and tassels. May be of silk, wool, mercerized cotton or rayon. 2. Cloth made with Chenille yarn for filling, used for hangings and couch covers. 3. Kind of carpet or rug reversible (Smyrna type) or single faced. Plain color or designs. Good quality, rich looking and durable.
So called because originally made of wool from the Cheviot sheep. 1. Rough-surfaced wool fabric similar to serge only heavier and rougher. May be made of woolen or worsted yarns. Stock- or piece-dyed. Somewhat fulled and napped. Excellent wearing quality. Uses: suits and coats. Weave—twill. Width, 28", 42", 48", 50", 54", 56", 58". 2. Stout, cotton shirting made of coarse yarns. Softer than hickory shirting or gingham. Stripes or checks. Yarn-dyed. Brown and white or blue and white. Weave —plain. Width, 28".
(Fr "chiffon", arag; pr. sheef-ong). 1. Descriptive term indicating light weight and soft finish as chiffon velvet or taffeta. 2. Light weight silk hose, usually four strand yarns. 3. Thin, gauze-like silk fabric with soft or sometimes a stiff finish. Warp and filling of hard twist singles. Chiffon cloth is heavier in weight than chiffon and more durable. Uses: party gowns, veils, trimmings. Weave— plain. Width, 40", 46".
Piece of fabric sewn at the foot of the quilt enabling it to be tucked in.
Short staple, white cotton grown in- China. Coarse and harsh with a feel which resembles wool. Used in cotton blankets and in cotton and wool mixtures.
China grass. See Ramie.
Originally, plain hand woven silks made in China. Soft, light weight, thin silk. Wears and launders well. Piece-dyed. Heavy weight is habuta?. Uses: linings, underwear, dresses, lampshades. Weave—plain. Width, 27", 36".
cloth as distinguished from fur of the same name. No resemblance. Heavy coating with napped surface rolled into little tufts or nubs. Double cloth, may contain cotton. Warm and attractive. Uses: overcoats, children's coats. Weave—twill (double cloth). Width, 54".
(pr. she-nay). From French "Chine", variegated, mottled. In the technical sense means warp printed. Used as an adjective in describing fabrics.
Originally any printed cotton fabric, the same as calico. Now a drapery fabric having small, gay figures,
Some chintzes have a glazed surface. See Glazed chintz. Weave—plain. Width, 25", 36",
Wool made non-shrinking by treatment with hydrochloric acid. Harsh and stiff. Increased affinity for dyes.
A trade named silk fabric similar to Pussy Willow.*
Fabric or garment made in tubular form on Chintz Direct print
flat or circular machine. Seamless hose, bathing suits, jersey fabric, tubular belts, etc., made in this way. Cire. Brilliant patent leather effect produced on satin (cloth or ribbon) by application of wax, heat and pressure
Name derived from an English manufacturer.
A heavy cloth of diagonal weave, looser than a serge, used
for mens' wear. Clock. Design on side of ankle in fancy hose. Made by
open effect in knitting or by embroidery.
Red dye derived from dried bodies of insects native to Central America
(pr. kwor). Brown coarse fibre from the shell of the coconut used in making mats and cordage.
Combing. Preparation of wool or cotton for spinning by separating long from short fibres and arranging in parallel fashion. Follows carding. Finest cotton fabrics made from combed yarns. Worsted yarns require combed fibres.
Spun cotton yarn, quite fine, having undergone a combing treatment during spinning.
Composition dot. See Flock dot.
Process which determines the percentage of moisture present in samples of fibres or fabrics.
Derived from the French Corde du Roi, meaning a King's cord. Kind of cotton velvet having ridges or cords in the pile. Made with an extra weft of mercerized yarns which float on the surface at intervals. Floats are cut, making tufts stand up in corded effect. Surface brushed and singed. Piece-dyed or printed. Often cravenetted. Boyduroy*, a trade name. Uses; suits, trousers, coats, infant's wraps, carriage robes and upholstery; excellent for sports wear. Weave—pile. Width, 27", 36".
Cotton Charmeuse. See Charmeuse.
Cotton and wool mixtures
Large class of fabrics, usually in checks, or plaids, used chiefly for children's dresses. Warp, cotton; filling, wool or part wool, yarn-dyed. Better grades launder well. Weave—twill. Width, 36", 40".
Cottonade. See Hickory.
1. Term indicating the number of ends and picks per inch, for example, the thread count of a fabric may be 86 x 80.
2. Yarn count—a number given to yarn indicating its fineness, based upon number of yards per pound, more correctly called "yarn number".
French "Fildecoutil", drill (pr. coo-tcel). Tough, firm variety of drilling used for corsets. Made from hard twisted cotton yarns. Close weave. A variety of effects produced by weave which varies from twill to many fancy stripes and figures, usually herringbone twill. Width, 36", 50".
In knit goods, the row of stitches across the fabric. Corresponds to weft in woven goods.
(pr. like "cover", taken from a hunting term). I. Medium weight suiting of woolen or worsted yarns. Warp is formed of two-ply yarns, one of which is white (tightly twisted). This gives a specked effect in color. The white is often cotton. Hard or soft finished. Yarn-dyed. Colors castor, tan, green, gray or drab. Excellent for wear. Uses: overcoats, riding habits, suits, rain coats. Weave—twill or satin. Width, 54". 2. Cotton covert, seldom sold in department stores by the yard. Usually gray, either plain or dark stripes. Resembles a wool suiting. Uses: trousers. Weave—twill. Width, 36".
Term applied to several fabrics having coarse, uneven yarns and rough texture. I. Dress linen or cotton. Various weights and colors. Weave—plain. Width, 36", 2. Art linen. White, natural or dyed. Weave—plain. Width, 20", 27", 36", 45", 54". 3. Drapery fabric. Natural or colors. Jute may be combined with linen or cotton. Uses: hangings, upholstery, pillows, table runners. Weave—plain. Width, 36", 50". 4. Toweling. Linen,
cotton or union (cotton warp, linen filling). Valued for its absorbing property. Rough, loosely spun yarns absorb better but are less strong than tightly twisted ones. Uses: towels, dresser runners, art needlework. Weave—plain or twill. Width, 15", 16", 18", 20". 5. Russian crash. Practically off the market during and since the war. Coarse, uneven handspun linen yarns containing some woody fibres. Handwoven by Russian peasants. Natural color. Width, 15" to 18". 6. Novelty wool fabrics sometimes called crash because of texture.
Process of rendering fabrics waterproof or moisture repellent. Named for Craven, the inventor. Cravenette* is a trade name for a finish applied to materials rendering them resistant to water.
General term covering many kinds of crinkled or uneven surfaced materials.
Japanese. Plain colored cotton material. Crgpi-ness is due to the right and left hand twist of filling yarns; white and all colors; yarn-dyed stripes; made in Japan. Uses: kimonos, smocks, women's and children's dresses, curtains, needlework. Weave—plain. Width, 29".
Kimono. Characteristic ridges make it resemble crepe paper. Permanently creped in grooves lengthwise by engraved rollers with heat, pressure and chemicals. Requires no ironing. White, plain colors and printed. Serpentine crepe* is a trade name for this fabric. Uses: kimonos. Weave— plain. Width, 30".
Mourning . crepe. Dull, crisp, black silk crepe woven in the gum. Used for mourning millinery and trimmings.
Wool crepe or Crepon
Rather wiry fabric. Surface effect due to treatment of yarns (difference in the degree of twist, or left and right hand twist in same fabric) or having some warp yarns slacker than others. Good wearing quality. Weave— plain. Width, 36", 40", 50", 54".
Fabric woven in the gum with of satin face and back of tightly twisted yarns, alternating right and left hand twist, which makes a dull, crfipy surface when degummcd. Width 40", 54".
Creped or Craped
From the Latin "crispare", to curl (rendering a fabric crimpy or crepy). Many effects are produced as:
Hard twisted yarns in right and left twist, warp or filling, or both which kink up when released from the loom. Examples—georgette, Japanese crepe.
Alternate groups of warp yarns, some wound on separate beam or held slacker than the rest, forming crinkled stripes as in seersucker, ripplette* or Austrian cloth.
Treatment with chemicals to produce blistery or creped surface as Plisse crepe.
Engraved rollers or grooves plus chemicals produce a fabric like Kimono crepe.
Heat and engraved rollers produce mourning or hard crapes which are woven from hard-spun silk in the gum.
Crepe de Chine
French "de chine" meaning "of China" Silk, crepy fabric woven in the gum of tightly twisted yarns having right and left hand twist. Crepiness appears after degumming. Heavy Crepe de Chine is very durable. Washable. If light in weight, yarns "slip" causing open spaces. Piece-dyed or printed. Seldom weighted. Uses: underwear, blouses, ties, dresses, trimmings. Weave—plain. Width, 40".
Replaced by crepe back satin.
Printed drapery fabric of cotton or linen in all variety of weaves and finishes. May include chintz (only difference being size of patterns, which are smaller in chintz). Uses: hangings, upholstery. Weave—plain or fancy. Width, 25", 36", 50", 54"-Crinoline. Stiff, open fabric used for interlinings and hat construction. Highly sized with a dull finish. Weave— plain. Width, 27".
When goods is poorly dyed and excess color rubs off, it is said to "crock".
Crinoline is a fabric composed of cotton warp, horsehair filling or all cotton yarns. SEE ARTICLE
Scotch term for bleaching linen on the grass.
Cross-dyeing. See Dyeing.
Syn. : sampler-stitch.
An embroidery stitch formed by crossing two slanting stitches so that their four points mark out a perfect square, the threads of the linen or canvas being always followed. It is an old stitch but appears but rarely on
Cross-stitch canvas. See Canvas.
One of the four processes by which rayon is manufactured. Cut pile. A fabric in which the loops formed in the process of weaving are cut, as in Wilton carpet; distinguished from uncut pile as in Brussels carpet. Cut Velvet. Brocaded velvet pattern on georgette or voile background. Dress fabric, Jacquard weave. Daisy cloth.* See outing flannel.
A name sometimes applied to cross-stitch, but more generally used to indicate the diaper-patterns formed of groups of straight stitches of varying length which are introduced as grounds or fillings, in embroideries of many periods and nationalities.
Syns.: point coupe" (Fr.) ; punto tagliato (Ital.). The immediate ancestor of needle-point lace. From a piece of linen portions were cut out and the holes thus made filled with bars of thread cased with buttonhole-stitch and forming a geometrical pattern